the former

Sunderland Jewish Community

Sunderland, Tyne & Wear






Kretinga (Krottingen) Market Place on Market Day
Late Nineteenth Century

From Kretinga to Sunderland

A Jewish chain migration from Lithuania

Cause and Effect - 1850-1930s

by Gordon Leigh

MA thesis 2002

Dedication by Gordon Leigh
To Sylvia for her constant encouragement, 
and to our daughter Mindy, my personal
girl, who steered me through the shoals and
mysteries of computer technology.


Table of Contents


Chapter 1 - The position of Jews in Russia and Lithuania

Chapter 2 - A tale of two (very different) towns:- Kretinga and Sunderland

Chapter 3 - Barnett Bernstein and the later Kretingan Immigrants

Chapter 4 - Early problems of integration and recognition

Chapter 5 - The struggle for recognition and independence

Chapter 6 - Progress, Harmony, and the Press

Chapter 7 - Achievement and Assessment

(In the Article, by hovering your mouse cursor over the superscript footnote
number in the text, the wording of the footnote will appear in a pop-up box.)

Note: This Table of Contents was not part of the original paper.


List of Illustration

1. Market Place of Kretinga about 1890 - Illustration

2. Map of Pale of Settlement *

3. Map of Lithuanian boundaries *

4. Map of of Kretinga and neighbouring towns with Jewish populations (circled black) *

5. Barnett Bernstein - Illustration

6. Newman Richardson - Illustration

7. Rabbi Hirsh Hurwitz - Illustration

8. Reb Chatze - Yechezkiel (Charles) Cohen - Illustration

* Illustrations not currently available.

JCR-UK wishes to extend its appreciation to
the late Gordon Leigh
for a copy of this paper.

Paper first posted on JCR-UK in or about 2008 (but file damaged)
Re-created and reformatted by David Shulman: 18 January 2015
Latest revision (including addition of footnotes and illustrations): 27 January 2016



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